Key developments in the presidency of Egypt’s Mohamed Morsi, who died Monday, the country’s first democratically-elected head of state who was ousted by the army after a tumultuous year in power.
– First civilian president –
On June 30, 2012, Morsi from the powerful Muslim Brotherhood organisation, wins 51.7 percent of the vote to become Egypt’s first civilian president.
He succeeds Hosni Mubarak who was forced to stand down by a popular revolt in February 2011.
Morsi is also the first democratically-elected Egyptian president and first Islamist to hold the post since the fall of the monarchy in 1952, his predecessors all coming from army ranks.
– Takes on the army –
On August 12, Morsi replaces Defence Minister and army chief Hussein Tantawi and sends him into retirement, and scraps a constitutional document which handed sweeping powers to the military.
He takes on legislative power and appoints a vice president, Mahmud Mekki.
– Expanded powers –
On November 22, Morsi assumes sweeping new powers and dismisses prosecutor general Abdel Meguid Mahmud, placing himself above control by the judiciary.
On November 30, the Islamist-dominated constituent assembly adopts a draft constitution to be put to a referendum. The vote is boycotted by liberals and Christians.
Morsi’s decision prompts a series of rival demonstrations, some of which degenerate into deadly clashes.
On December 8, Morsi agrees to abandon his expanded powers, in a bid to end the crisis, but maintains plans for a referendum on the controversial new constitution.
On December 15 and 22, the Islamist-backed constitution is approved by nearly 64 percent after a referendum the opposition says is tainted by irregularities.
– Violence and demonstrations –
On January 24, 2013, the start of a new wave of clashes between protesters and police on the eve of the second anniversary of the revolt that overthrew Mubarak.
On June 2, Egypt’s highest court invalidates the Senate, which acts as legislature, and a panel that drafted the constitution, undermining the Islamists’ legitimacy in state institutions.
On June 30, massive demonstrations against Morsi are staged in Cairo and other cities. “The people want the fall of the regime,” demonstrators shout, in a throwback to the slogan used in 2011 against Mubarak.
– 2013: Army ousts Morsi –
On July 3, after massive protests against Morsi’s divisive rule, the military led by General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi overthrows him.
Morsi calls on his supporters to defend his “legitimacy” before being arrested.
On August 14, police disperse two pro-Morsi protest camps in Cairo, killing about 700 people in clashes.
More than other 1,400 pro-Morsi protesters are killed over several months and hundreds sentenced to death.
– Sentencing and death –
On June 17, 2019, Morsi dies after falling ill during a court hearing in Cairo, judicial and security sources say.
Since his ouster, Morsi has been sentenced to a total 45 years in prison for inciting violence against demonstrators in late 2012 and spying for Qatar.
He was also on trial in two other affairs, following the annulment of two verdicts against him, one for which he was sentenced to death and the other to life imprisonment.